1) Draw and compare a pacemaker and ventricular muscle action potential. (Draw each to scale and superimpose them)
– Explain each phase.
– Why are the resting membrane potentials different?
– How are the action potentials affected by:
a) Sympathetic stimulation
c) A beta-blocker
d) A calcium channel blocker
2) What is the Nernst equation?
– Compare the concentrations of ions intra- and extracellularly.
– What is the Gibbs–Donnan effect?
3) Draw a graph of CO2 content versus PaCO2.
– How is CO2 carried around the body?
– Explain the Haldane effect.
– Does the graph cut the zero point?
– Draw O2 content versus PaO2 on same graph.
– Why does this have a different shape?