|1. The results of measuring arterial blood gases for a patient are as follows: pH 7.10; pCO2 12 kPa; pO2 15 kPa.
- What is pH, and what does it tell you?
- What values can be derived from a blood gas machine?
- What are the definitions of base excess and standard bicarbonate?
2. What is the equation for determining intracranial pressure?
3. What affects intracranial pressure?
4. Draw graphs for PO2 , PCO2, mean arterial pressure (MAP); explain the features of these graphs.
5. How does CO2 mediate its effects?
6. Describe the mechanism of autoregulation.
7. Where on a MAP curve is cerebral vascular resistance highest?
8. What is the Monro-Kellie doctrine? Draw a graph demonstrating this principle and explain the significance of the plateau.
9. How is cerebral blood flow measured?
- Which of these methods would you use?
- Describe the technique you have selected.
10. What is normal value for cerebrospinal fluid pressure?
11. Which hormones affect blood glucose?
- Choose one of these and discuss its mechanism of action.
12. What are the lengths of the polypeptide chains in human and porcine insulin?
13. How does skeletal muscle contract?