|1. Describe the role of the following factors in capillary circulation:
- The sympathetic nerves, noradrenaline, alpha-1 adrenoreceptors, Gq proteins, second messengers.
- The surface area of capillaries and volume of blood they contain.
- The endothelium.
2. What are Starling’s forces?
- Draw a diagram illustrating this, indicating pressure gradients, and give values.
- What is the formula for net filtration?
3. What is the Hagen-Poiseuille equation?
4. How does the haematocrit affect viscosity?
- What are the effects of the haematocrit on blood flow?
5. Discuss the central and peripheral control of respiration, and the different responses to O2, CO2 and H+.
- Draw graphs showing the ventilatory response to CO2 tension and how this is altered by PaO2.
- Draw a graph of the ventilatory response to O2 tension and how this is altered by PaCO2.
6. What are the effects of altitude on the body?
- What is the alveolar gas equation, and how is it influenced by altitude?