|1. What is the volume of total body water?
- How is it distributed?
- What compensatory mechanisms occur in normal individuals if you give them a litre of normal saline, with 5% dextrose?
2. Spirometry loops: discuss lung volumes and estimation methods of different volumes.
- Functional residual capacity (FRC): what is the volume of oxygen in the FRC if you are breathing air/100% oxygen?
- What factors govern the rate of rise of the FRC?
3. Draw a ventricular pressure curve against time.
- Superimpose the curve for aortic pressure.
- What do you know about valve opening times?
- Draw a ventricular pressure-volume loop.
- Discuss what you know about left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and -volume, and left ventricular end-systolic pressure and -volume.
- What do you know about isovolumetric phases and where they occur?
- What is contractility? What would happen to the pressure-volume loop if the contractility of the heart increased?
4. What is the normal blood glucose level?
- Draw a graph of urinary glucose concentration against plasma glucose concentration.
- Why is it this shape?
- What is the tubular transport maximum?
- How is glucose reabsorbed in the kidney?