1. Discuss the pacemaker action potential.
2. Discuss both slow and fast calcium channels.
3. Describe the various phases of these slow and fast channels. Why do they occur? What are they?
4. Discuss the cardiac action potential.
5. Discuss the autonomic innervation of the heart.
6. How do autonomic changes occur?
7. Discuss the innervation of the sino-atrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) node.
8. Discuss the non-respiratory functions of lung.
9. Discuss the metabolic functions of the lung.
10. Discuss the immunological functions of the lung.
11. What pulmonary vasodilators do you know?
12. What is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV)?
13. What happens to pO2 in the apex and base of the lung?
You are now presented with blood gas results, showing: [H+], 7.1 nmol/L PCO2, 9.0 kPa; PaO2, 15.1 kPa.
1. What do these values show?
2. Is oxygenation satisfactory in this patient? Does the patient need supplementary oxygen?
3. How does the body compensate in this situation?
4. What is the Henderson-Hasselbach equation?