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You are in Home >> Exams >> Syllabus: Primary, Final & FCARCSI

Irish Syllabus: General pharmacology

Created: 20/4/2004

 

GENERAL

Interatomic and intermolecular bonds
Laws of diffusion
Diffusion through membranes
Receptor function & regulation
Solubility and partition coefficients
Ionisation of drugs
Drug isomerism
Protein binding
Oxidation & reduction

MODE OF DRUG ACTION

Drug-receptor interaction dynamics
Agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists

Efficacy & potency
Tolerance
Metabolic pathways; enzymes
Drug/enzyme interaction
Michaelis –Menten relationship
Enzyme inducers and inhibitors

Mechanism of drug action
Ion channels; types and relation to receptors
Gating mechanisms
Signal transduction; cell membrane/ receptor/ion channel to intracellular molecular target, second messengers

Action of gases and vapours
Osmotic effects, pH effects
Adsorption and chelation

Mechanisms of drug interactions;
Inhibition and promotion of drug uptake
Competitive protein binding
Receptor interactions
Effect of metabolites and other degradation products

PHARMACOKINETICS & PHARMACODYNAMICS

Drug uptake from gastrointestinal tract, lungs, transdermal, subcutaneous, IM, IV, epidural, intrathecal routes.
Ocular, nasal and sublingual uptake

Bioavailability
Factors influencing the distribution of drugs: perfusion, solubility, molecular size, protein binding, ionisation
Influence of drug formulation on disposition

Distribution to organs and tissues; body compartments
Influence of specialised membranes; tissue binding and solubility
Distribution in cerebrospinal fluid and extradural space

Modes of drug elimination; direct excretion, metabolism in organs of excretion (phase I and II mechanisms), renal excretion and urinary pH, non-organ drug breakdown

Pharmacokinetic analysis; concept of a pharmacokinetic compartment, apparent volume of distribution, clearance, clearance concept applied to whole body and individual organs

Pharmacokinetic analysis contd;  simple 1 and 2 compartment models, concepts of wash-in and wash-out curves, physiological  models based on perfusion and partition coefficients, effect of organ blood flow, Fick principle

Pharmacokinetic analysis contd; pharmacokinetic variation, influence of body size, sex, age, disease, anaesthesia, trauma, surgery, smoking, alcohol and other drugs

Effects of acute organ failure on drug elimination
Pharmacodynamics; concentration-effect relationships, hysteresis

Pharmacogenetics; familial variation in drug response
Adverse reactions to drugs; hypersensitivity, allergy, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions

Effect of pregnancy on maternal pharmacokinetics and materno-foetal distribution


ArticleDate:20040420
SiteSection: Article
 
   
    
                                            
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