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# Irish Syllabus: Physics & measurement

Created: 20/4/2004

 Mathematical concepts; relationships & graphs Concepts of exponential functions & logarithms; wash-in, wash-out, tear awayBasic measurement; linearity, drift, hysteresis, signal to noise ratio, static and dynamic responseSI units; fundamental & derivedOther units relevant to anaesthesia, e.g. mmHg, bar etcMass, force, work & powerFreezing, boiling, melting points, latent heat, conduction, convection, radiationLaws of thermodynamicsMeasurement of temperature and humidity Colligative properties, osmometryPhysics of gases & vapoursAbsolute & relative pressuresGas laws; triple point, critical temperature & pressureDensity & viscosity of gasesVapour pressureSaturated vapour pressure Basic concepts of electricity & magnetismResistance, capacitance, inductance, impedanceAmplifiers; bandwidth, filters, A/D & D/A conversionAmplification of  biological potentials; ECG, EMG, EEGSources of and methods of reducing electrical interferenceMeasurement of neuromuscular blockadeProcessing, storage and display of physiological measurementsBridge circuitsPrinciples of pressure transducersResonance, damping and frequency responseUnits of pressureDirect and indirect methods of blood pressure measurementPrinciples of pulmonary artery and wedge pressure measurementCardiac output measurement by Fick principleCardiac output measurement by thermodilutionOther methods of measuring cardiac outputBasic principles of ultrasound and the Doppler effect Principles of cardiac pacemakersPrinciples of defibrillatorsBasic principles and safety of lasersElectrical safetyElectrical hazards; causes and preventionElectrocution, fires and explosionsDiathermy and its safe useNewtonian & non-newtonian fluidsLaminar & turbulent flowPoiseuille’s equationBernoulli principleMeasurement of volume and flow in gases and liquidsPrinciples of surface tensionPneumotachograph and other respirometersMeasurement of gas and vapour concentrations (of  O2, CO2, N2O, volatile agents) using spectroscopy, paramagnetic analyser, fuel cells, oxygen electrode and mass spectrometryMeasurement of pH, pCO2, pO2Measurement of CO2 production/oxygen consumption/respiratory quotientSimple pulmonary function tests; peak flow, spirometryCapnographyPulse oximetryPhysical principles underlying anaesthetic machine function; pressure regulators, flowmeters, vaporisers, breathing systemsDetection and prevention of  delivery of low PO2 gas mixtureDetection of gas supply failureChemistry of CO2 absorption compoundsPrinciples of lung ventilatorsDisconnection monitors Manufacture and storage of O2, N2O, CO2, compressed airPipeline and suction systemsGas cylindersMinimum monitoring requirementsPre-use checks of anaesthetic machine, breathing systems and monitoring apparatusAirways, laryngeal masks, tracheal tubes, tracheostomy tubes, emergency airwaysFixed and variable performance oxygen therapy equipmentSelf-inflating bags Function and use of resuscitation equipmentTransfusion devicesHumidification devicesEnvironmental control in the operating theatre; temperature, humidity, air changes, scavenging systems Measurement of painCharacteristics of IV cannulae, central lines, pulmonary artery catheters, arterial cannulae and  setting up associated monitoring connectionsCharacteristics of spinal and epidural needles The content of the anaesthetic record ArticleDate:20040420 SiteSection: Article