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Cardiac Output

The Primary ( ) and Final () FRCA examinations require an extensive knowledge of cardiovascular physiology. We have therefore written a new educational resource section on the subject of cardiovascular physiology and the measurement of cardiac output. The tutorials have been tailored to the FRCA syllabus and we have also added some past questions relevant to these topics.

Read other sections by using the navigation bar on the right side of every page. 

 Primary FRCA Syllabus



 Control of cardiac output.

Q. Primary Viva Question

How is cardiac output calculated? Explain the equation and its relevance to your anaesthetic goals.


 Final FRCA Syllabus

Clinical Measurement

 Methods of measurement of cardiac output and derived indices; limitations and interpretation.

Q. Final Viva

What methods of measuring cardiac output are you aware of? Explain the principles involved.

Articles on cardiac output

Cardiac output - definition
Cardiac output - measures and derived indices
Cardiac output - invasive methods of measurement
Pulmonary artery catheters
Cardiac output - non-invasive methods of measurement
Oesophageal Doppler monitoring
Physical principles
Positioning the probe
CardioQ monitor
Calculation of stroke volume and cardiac output
Assessment of pre-load
Oesophageal Doppler variables
Examples of CardioQ waveforms


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