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The central venous pressure trace

Created: 2/11/2004

This waveform is obtained from the tracing of a central venous line.

 A wave - due to atrial contraction. Absent in atrial fibrillation. Enlarged in tricuspid stenosis, pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary hypertension.

 C wave - due to bulging of tricuspid valve into the right atrium or possibly transmitted pulsations from the carotid artery.

 X descent - due to atrial relaxation.

 V wave - due to the rise in atrial pressure before the tricuspid valve opens. Enlarged in tricuspid regurgitation.

 Y descent - due to atrial emptying as blood enters the ventricle.

 Canon waves - large waves not corresponding to a, v or c waves. Due to complete heart block or junctional arrhythmias.

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