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Primary Viva 6 (Physiology)

Created: 14/9/2004

1) Draw and compare a pacemaker and ventricular muscle action potential. (Draw each to scale and superimpose them)

– Explain each phase.

– Why are the resting membrane potentials different?

– How are the action potentials affected by:

a) Sympathetic stimulation
b) Lidocaine
c) A beta-blocker
d) A calcium channel blocker
e) Amiodarone

2) What is the Nernst equation?

– Compare the concentrations of ions intra- and extracellularly.

– What is the Gibbs–Donnan effect?
3) Draw a graph of CO2 content versus PaCO2.

– How is CO2 carried around the body?

– Explain the Haldane effect.

– Does the graph cut the zero point?

– Draw O2 content versus PaO2 on same graph.

– Why does this have a different shape?

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