|1. Draw the left ventricular pressure curve.
- Superimpose an aortic waveform onto to this curve and explain the features.
- Superimpose an ECG onto this curve.
- Using this curve, indicate when the aortic and mitral valves open and close, and when the first and second heart sounds occur.
- Draw the same curve in aortic stenosis.
2. Draw and explain the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve.
- Explain the conditions which shift this curve to the right and to the left.
- Superimpose a dissociation curve for myoglobin and fetal haemoglobin.
- What is the function of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate?
- Superimpose a curve for arterial oxygen content (CaO2) and explain what happens with a higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2).
- Explain the changes in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SpO2), CaO2 and the amount of oxygen carried by the venous blood (CvO2) which occur when 100% oxygen is inhaled during preoxygenation.
3. How is glucose metabolised?
- Describe the stages of the Krebs cycle.
- Can glucose be synthesised by the body?
- Which amino acids are converted into glucose?
4. Describe the reaction induced by touching a red hot substance (withdrawal reflex).
- Draw the afferent and efferent pathways triggered by this reflex.