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Primary Viva 14 (Pharmacology)

Created: 24/11/2005
1. Name an inhalational agent that you use commonly.
- How is this agent metabolised?
- What percentage of this agent is converted to compound A (if talking about sevoflurane)
2. What are the effects of isoflurane on:
- Blood pressure
- Systemic vascular resistance
- Cardiac output
- Blood flow in different organs
- Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen
- Cerebral blood flow
- Coronary blood flow and the steal phenomenon in coronary blood flow.
3. Compare and contrast isoflurane, sevoflurane and enflurane.
4. What are the effects of enflurane on hepatic blood flow and renal blood flow?
5. Choose a drug and explain how it acts (i.e. structure, receptors, second messenger, explain why there is a need for a second messenger, how does this bring about the effects of the drug etc).
6. Classify neuromuscular blockers.
7. Explain how acetylcholine works.
8. What is the mechanism of depolarising block?
9. Discuss the concept of time and voltage gates.
10. What are the complications of suxamethonium?
- How can fasciculations be prevented?
- Why does bradycardia occur with the second dose of suxamethonium?
- What would be the result of suxamethonium being given to a burns patient?
11. Draw a nicotinic receptor.
- Name the subtypes of nicotinic receptors.
- Describe the subunits of nicotinic receptors.
- Describe the differences in the composition and actions of fetal and adult nicotinic receptors.
- Why are two molecules of acetylcholine needed to stimulate these receptors?
12. Discuss the use of neuromuscular blockers in muscle dystrophies.

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