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You are in Home >> Exams >> Syllabus: Primary, Final & FCAI

New Primary Syllabus

Created: 21/12/2005

The exams syllabus has been replaced by the 'Knowledge' sections of the Competency Based Training document for SHOs.  have produced this syllabus using the CBT document to help aid your revision. Click on the relevant links for further reading.



Implications for anaesthesia of commoner elective conditions requiring gynaecological,
abdominal, orthopaedic, ENT, dental, urological and body surface surgery. Knowledge of
sub-specialty practice and specialised techniques is not required unless specified

The relevance of trauma, intestinal obstruction and acute abdominal emergencies

The ASA classification and other scoring systems such as Glasgow coma scale (GCS)

The interpretation of relevant preoperative investigations

Restriction of food and fluid by mouth, cessation of smoking, correction of dehydration

Assessment of difficulties in airway management and the importance of the 'shared

Implications for anaesthesia of common medical conditions (ischaemic heart disease,
hypertension, diabetes, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis etc)

Anaesthetic implications of current drug therapy and whether it should be continued,
modified stopped or changed peri-operatively

Need for and methods of perioperative antithrombotic treatment

The importance of an anaesthetic history and genetic diseases in anaesthesia with
respect to suxamethonium apnoea, anaphylaxis and malignant hyperpyrexia

Assessment of post-operative analgesic needs

Assessment of whether ICU or HDU care will be required post-operatively

The importance of consent and the issues surrounding it

Dangers of repeat anaesthesia



Rationale for use of premedicant drugs

Choice of drugs, advantages and disadvantages

Rationale for antacid, and prokinetic premedication

Rationale for antithrombotic therapy

Understanding of causes of delayed gastric emptying



Physical principles underlying the function of the anaesthetic machine, pressure regulators, flowmeters, vaporizers, breathing systems

Chemistry of absorption of carbon dioxide

Principles of lung ventilators, disconnection monitors

Manufacture and storage of oxygen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, compressed air

Pipeline and suction systems, gas cylinders

Minimum monitoring requirements

Basis for pre-use checks of anaesthetic machine, breathing systems and monitoring

Airways, tracheal tubes, tracheostomy tubes, emergency airways, laryngeal masks, fixed
and variable performance oxygen therapy equipment, self-inflating bags

The content of an anaesthetic record

Function and use of resuscitation equipment, transfusion devices

Humidification devices

Environmental control of the operating theatre including temperature, humidity, air changes and scavenging systems for waste anaesthetic gases and vapours

Sterilisation and cleaning of equipment

Electrical safety

Characteristics of intravenous cannulae, spinal and epidural needles



Intravenous and inhalational induction of anaesthesia; advantages and disadvantages of
each technique

Indications for tracheal intubation

Selection of tube type (oral, nasal, armoured etc), diameter and length

Management of difficult intubation and failed intubation

Methods of confirming placement of the endotracheal tube; oesophageal and
endobronchial intubation, complications

Insertion and use of oral airways, face masks and laryngeal mask airway

Causes of regurgitation and vomiting during induction, prevention and management of
pulmonary aspiration

Cricoid pressure

Induction of anaesthesia in special circumstances, (head injury, full stomach, upper
airway obstruction, shock)

Drugs: pharmacology and dosages of induction agents, relaxants, analgesics, and
inhalational agents

Side effects of drugs used and their interactions

Monitoring during induction

Recognition and management of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions including
follow up and patient information

Management of intra-arterial injection of harmful substances (e.g. antibiotics,

Management of asthma, COPD, hypertension, IHD, rheumatoid arthritis

Problems of the obese patient



Techniques of maintenance of general anaesthesia involving both spontaneous and
controlled ventilation (except sub-specialty and highly specialised practice)

Definition of and methods of sedation

Management of the shared airway

Effects and hazards of the pneumoperitoneum induced for laparoscopic surgery

Drugs: Pharmacology, uses and dosages of induction agents used for IV maintenance,
relaxants, analgesics, inhalational agents

Methods of producing muscle relaxation

Choice of spontaneous and controlled ventilation and methods of monitoring them

Minimum monitoring standards

Additional monitoring for sick patients (e.g. CVP, urine flow)

Detection and prevention of awareness

Management of important critical incidents occurring during anaesthesia

Diagnosis and treatment of pneumothorax

Principles of fluid balance

Blood & blood products; synthetic colloids; crystalloids

Management of massive haemorrhage, volume expansion, blood transfusion (hazards
including incompatibility reaction)

Correct intraoperative positioning on theatre table, care of pressure points, avoidance
nerve injury: complications of supine and prone positions

Management of asthma, COPD, hypertension, IHD, rheumatoid arthritis, jaundice,
steroid therapy, diabetes

Content of the anaesthetic record

Modification of technique in repeat anaesthesia

Understanding basic surgical operations



Causes and treatment of failure to breathe at end of operation

Distinguishing between opiate excess, continued anaesthetic effect and/or residual

Care of the unconscious patient

Monitoring the patient in recovery

Interpretation of nerve stimulator patterns

Oxygen therapy, indications and techniques

Management of cyanosis, hypo- and hypertension, shivering and stridor

Postoperative fluid balance and prescribing

Assessment of pain and methods of pain management

Methods of treating of postoperative nausea and vomiting

Causes and management of post-operative confusion

Management of asthma, COPD, hypertension, IHD, rheumatoid arthritis, jaundice,
steroid therapy, diabetes

Management of the obese patient

Recovery room equipment

Prevention, diagnosis and management of postoperative pulmonary atelectasis, deep
vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus

Criteria for discharge of day-stay patients


SHO trainees in anaesthesia are required to spend a total of 3 months in intensive care training. The SHO knowledge, skills and attitudes lists below are compatible with the recommendations of the Intercollegiate Board for Training in Intensive Care Medicine (IBTICM)9 for SHO training in intensive care medicine. Because these are reproduced in full, there is obviously repetition of material that appears in other sections of this document. There is, in addition, guidance on assessment for ICM.


An understanding of the potential benefits of high dependency and intensive care

Common causes of admission to high dependency and intensive care

Method of examination of the unconscious patient

The principles of brain stem death diagnosis

An understanding of sepsis and the basic patterns of failure of the major organs

The common causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest

The anatomy of the oropharynx, larynx, trachea & bronchial tree

Basic anatomy of neck, upper thorax, arms, wrists, inguinal region and foot relevant to
insertion of venous and arterial access

Method of inserting a chest drain and relief of tension pneumothorax

Understanding of the choice of intravenous fluids appropriate for use in major fluid loss,
and their pharmacology

The recognition of basic cardiac dysrrhythmias and the current therapies (physical
(carotid sinus massage), electrical (defibrillation & countershock), electrolytic (Mg++,
Ca++), and pharmacological (adrenaline (epinephrine), atropine, lignocaine and 2nd line

Pharmacology of the common inotropic agents used in the critically ill (adrenaline
(epinephrine), nor-adrenaline (nor-epinephrine))

Pharmacology of major analgesics used as respiratory depressants (morphine, fentanyl
series), and common side effects and contra-indications

Pharmacology of common muscle relaxants (depolarising and non-depolarising) and
common side effects and contra-indications

Pharmacology of intravenous sedative and anaesthetic induction agents used in the
critical care unit

Thromboprophylaxis in intensive and high dependency patients

Choice of antibiotics

Use of diuretics for cardiac and respiratory failure and to maintain urine output

The basic cardiac and respiratory physiology

The basic physiology of respiration and the consequences of positive pressure

An understanding of common blood gas abnormalities

An understanding of the use of ventilation in use on critically ill patients, with a
knowledge of the vocabulary

An understanding of the uses and limitations of monitoring equipment

The content of an ICU record

An insight into likely outcome based upon severity scoring

The grief response



Pharmacology of local anaesthetics & spinal opioids

Anatomy of spine, nerve roots, cauda equina, intercostal nerves, brachial plexus,
femoral nerve, inguinal canal, nerves at wrist and ankle, nerve supply of larynx

Dermatomes and levels for common operations (e.g. inguinal hernia, haemorrhoids)

Technique of spinal and epidural (including caudal) anaesthesia: single shot and
catheter techniques

Management of the complications of spinal and epidural (including caudal) analgesia
(associated hypotension, shivering, nausea & anxiety)

Management of accidental total spinal blockade

Management of dural tap

Techniques and complications of intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA),

Toxicity of local anaesthetic agents and its management

Management of failed/ deteriorating regional block

Methods of sedation

Absolute and relative contraindications to regional blockade



Performance and interpretation of the primary and secondary survey

Emergency airway management

Anatomy and technique of cricothyrotomy/tracheostomy/mini-tracheotomy

Establishing IV access: interosseous cannulation

Immediate specific treatment of life-threatening illness or injury, with special reference to
thoracic and abdominal trauma

Recognition and management of hypovolaemic shock

Effects of trauma on gastric emptying

Arterial pressure monitoring

Pleural drain insertion

Peritoneal lavage

Principles of the management of head injury

Mechanisms and effects of raised intra-cranial pressure: coup and contra-coup injuries

Methods of preventing the 'second insult' to the brain

Principles of anaesthesia in the presence of a recent head injury

Management of cervical spine injuries

Principles of the safe transfer of patients

Understanding portable monitoring systems

Recognition and management of dilutional coagulopathy

Factors affecting intraocular pressure



Physiological changes associated with a normal pregnancy

Functions of the placenta: placental transfer: feto-maternal circulation

The fetus: fetal circulation: changes at birth

Pain pathways relevant to labour

Methods of analgesia during labour: indications and contraindications

Effect of pregnancy on the technique of general and regional anaesthesia

Principles of anaesthesia for incidental surgery during pregnancy


Knowledge (infants and children)

Anatomical differences in the airway, head, and spinal cord from the adult

Deciduous and permanent dentition

Physiological differences from the adult

Haematological and biochemical changes with age

Estimation of blood volume, replacement of fluid loss

Modification of drug dosages

Analgesia for children

Premedication, including local anaesthesia for venepuncture

Calculation of tube sizes, selection of masks and airways

Choice of breathing system

Upper respiratory tract infections and when to cancel operations

Psychological aspects of sick children



Physiological changes with age  
Altered pharmacological response

Erosion of physiological reserve

Frequent co-morbidities

Positioning difficulties

Communication difficulties (eyesight, hearing, CVAs)

Mental clarity, memory loss

Causes of post-operative confusion

Importance of social circumstances

Pain management


Afferent nocioceptive pathways, dorsal horn, peripheral and central mechanisms,
neuromodulatory systems, supraspinal mechanisms

Nocioceptive pain, visceral pain, neuropathic pain

Influence of therapy on nocioceptive mechanisms

The analgesic ladder

Simple analgesics: drugs and mechanisms

Opioids: drugs and mechanisms

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents: drugs and mechanisms
Local anaesthetic agents: drugs and mechanisms

Measurement of pain

Organisation and objectives of an acute pain service

INFECTION CONTROL                    


Universal precautions and good working practices (hand washing, gloves etc)

Cross infection: modes and common agents

Emergence of resistant strains: antibiotic policies in a hospital

Common surgical infections: antibiotic choice and prophylaxis

Infections from contaminated blood

Hepatitis and HIV infections: modes of infection: natural history: at risk groups

Immunisation policy

Sterilisation of equipment

Strategy if contaminated



Common causes of critical incidents
Principles of the causes, detection and management of:

Cardiac and / or respiratory arrest
Unexpected Hypoxia with or without cyanosis
Unexpected increase in peak airway pressure
Progressive fall in minute volume during spontaneous respiration or IPPV
Fall in end tidal CO2
Rise in end tidal CO2
Rise in inspired CO2
Unexpected hypotension
Unexpected hypertension
Sinus Tachycardia
Arrhythmias (ST segment changes; sudden tachydysrhythmia; sudden bradycardia;
Ventricular Ectopics – Ventricular tachycardia – Ventricular Fibrillation)

Management of the following specific conditions:

Aspiration of vomit
Tension Pneumothorax
Gas / Fat / Pulmonary embolus
Adverse drug reactions
Transfusion of miss-matched blood or blood products
Malignant hyperpyrexia
Inadvertent intra-arterial injection of irritant fluids
High spinal block
Local Anaesthetic toxicity
Failed intubation
Difficulty with IPPV and sudden or progressive loss of minute volume



Patient assessment: diagnosis of causes of cardio-respiratory arrest

Causes of cardio-respiratory arrest during induction, maintenance and recovery from

Importance of considering non-cardiac causes of cardio-respiratory arrest

Methods of airway management (mouth-mouth/nose, bag-mask, LMA, intubation)

Recognition and management of life-threatening arrhythmias including defibrillation
and drug therapy

Recognition and management of non-cardiac causes of cardio-respiratory arrest

Knowledge of specific problems of paediatric resuscitation

Ethical aspects of resuscitation

ALS courses


Trainees should be able to demonstrate a good understanding of human anatomy relevant to the practice of anaesthesia at SHO level and to support progress to SpR 1/2 training.


Respiratory System

Mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, main bronchi, segmental bronchi, structure of
bronchial tree: differences in the child
Airway and respiratory tract, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage
Pleura, mediastinum and its contents
Lungs, lobes, microstructure of lungs
Diaphragm, other muscles of respiration, innervation
The thoracic inlet and 1st rib
Interpretation of a normal chest x-ray

Cardiovascular system

Heart, chambers, conducting system, blood and nerve supply.
Great vessels, main peripheral arteries and veins
Fetal and materno - fetal circulation

Nervous system

Brain and its subdivisions
Spinal cord, structure of spinal cord, major ascending and descending pathways
Spinal meninges, subarachnoid and extradural space, contents of extradural space
CSF and its circulation
Spinal nerves, dermatomes
Brachial plexus, nerves of arm
Intercostal nerves
Nerves of abdominal wall
Nerves of leg and foot
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic innervation, sympathetic chain, ganglia and plexuses
Parasympathetic innervation
Stellate ganglion
Cranial nerves: base of skull: trigeminal ganglion
Innervation of the larynx
Eye and orbit

Vertebral column

Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae
Sacrum, sacral hiatus
Ligaments of vertebral column
Surface anatomy of vertebral spaces, length of cord in child and adult

Surface anatomy

Structures in antecubital fossa
Structures in axilla: identifying the brachial plexus
Large veins and anterior triangle of neck
Large veins of leg and femoral triangle
Arteries of arm and leg
Landmarks for tracheostomy, cricothyrotomy
Abdominal wall (including the inguinal region): landmarks for suprapubic urinary and
peritoneal lavage catheters


Trainees should have a good general understanding of human physiology, be able to apply physiological principles and knowledge to clinical practice at SHO and have sufficient knowledge to support progress to SpR 1/2 training.



Organisation of the human body and control of internal environment
Variations with age
Function of cells; genes and their expression
Cell membrane characteristics; receptors
Protective mechanisms of the body


Acid base balance and buffers
Ions e.g. Na + , K+, Ca++ , Cl-, HCO3
Cellular metabolism

Body fluids and their functions and constituents

Capillary dynamics and interstitial fluid
Osmolarity: osmolality, partition of fluids across membranes
Lymphatic system
Special fluids especially cerebrospinal fluid: also pleural, pericardial
and peritoneal fluids

Haematology and Immunology

Red blood cells: haemoglobin and its variants
Blood groups
Haemostasis and coagulation

White blood cells
The inflammatory response
Immunity and allergy


Action potential generation and its transmission
Neuromuscular junction and transmission
Muscle types
Skeletal muscle contraction
Smooth muscle contraction: sphincters
Motor unit


Cardiac muscle contraction
The cardiac cycle: pressure and volume relationships
Rhythmicity of the heart
Regulation of cardiac function; general and cellular
Control of cardiac output (including the Starling relationship)
Fluid challenge and heart failure
Electrocardiogram and arrhythmias
Neurological and humoral control of systemic blood pressures, blood volume and blood
flow (at rest and during physiological disturbances e.g. exercise, haemorrhage and
Valsalva manoeuvre)
Peripheral circulation: capillaries, vascular endothelium and arteriolar smooth muscle Characteristics of special circulations including: pulmonary, coronary, cerebral, renal, portal and foetal

Renal tract

Blood flow and glomerular filtration and plasma clearance
Tubular function and urine formation
Assessment of renal function
Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance
Regulation of acid-base balance
Pathophysiology of acute renal failure


Gaseous exchange: O2 and CO2 transport, hypoxia and hyper- and hypocapnia, hyperand hypobaric pressures
Functions of haemoglobin in oxygen carriage and acid-base equilibrium
Pulmonary ventilation: volumes, flows, dead space
Effect of IPPV on lungs
Mechanics of ventilation: ventilation/perfusion abnormalities
Control of breathing, acute and chronic ventilatory failure, effect of oxygen therapy
Non-respiratory functions of the lungs

Nervous System

Functions of nerve cells: action potentials, conduction and synaptic mechanisms
The brain: functional divisions
Intracranial pressure: cerebrospinal fluid, blood flow
Maintenance of posture
Autonomic nervous system: functions
Neurological reflexes
Motor function: spinal and peripheral
Senses: receptors, nociception, special senses
Pain: afferent nociceptive pathways, dorsal horn, peripheral and central mechanisms,
neuromodulatory systems, supraspinal mechanisms, visceral pain, neuropathic pain,
influence of therapy on nociceptive mechanisms
Spinal cord: anatomy and blood supply, effects of spinal cord section


Functional anatomy and blood supply
Metabolic functions


Gastric function; secretions, nausea and vomiting
Gut motility, sphincters and reflex control
Digestive functions


Nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals
Metabolic pathways, energy production and enzymes; metabolic rate
Hormonal control of metabolism: regulation of plasma glucose, response to trauma
Physiological alterations in starvation, obesity, exercise and the stress response
Body temperature and its regulation


Mechanisms of hormonal control: feedback mechanisms, effect on membrane and intracellular receptors
Hypothalamic and pituitary function
Adrenocortical hormones
Adrenal medulla: adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
Pancreas: insulin, glucagon and exocrine function
Thyroid and parathyroid hormones and calcium homeostasis


Physiological changes associated with normal pregnancy
Materno-fetal, fetal and neonatal circulation
Functions of the placenta: placental transfer
Fetus: changes at birth


Trainees should have a good understanding of general pharmacological principles, together with knowledge of drugs likely to be encountered in (a) anaesthetic practice and (b) current treatment of patients presenting for anaesthesia. The level of knowledge should be sufficient to enable clinical practice at SHO level and able to support progress to SpR 1/2 training.


Applied chemistry

Types of intermolecular bonds
Laws of diffusion. Diffusion of molecules through membranes
Solubility and partition coefficients
Ionization of drugs
Drug isomerism
Protein binding
Oxidation and reduction

Mode of action of drugs

Dynamics of drug-receptor interaction
Agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists
Efficacy and potency. Tolerance
Receptor function and regulation
Metabolic pathways; enzymes; drug: enzyme interactions; Michaelis-Menten equation
Enzyme inducers and inhibitors
Mechanisms of drug action
Ion channels: types: relation to receptors. Gating mechanisms
Signal transduction: cell membrane/receptors/ion channels to intracellular molecular
targets, second messengers
Action of gases and vapours
Osmotic effects. pH effects. Adsorption and chelation
Mechanisms of drug interactions:
Inhibition and promotion of drug uptake. Competitive protein binding. Receptor interactions Effects of metabolites and other degradation products.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Drug uptake from: gastrointestinal tract, lungs, transdermal, subcutaneous, IM, IV,
epidural, intrathecal routes
Factors determining the distribution of drugs: perfusion, molecular size, solubility, protein
The influence of drug formulation on disposition
Distribution of drugs to organs and tissues: Body compartments
Influence of specialised membranes: tissue binding and solubility
Materno-fetal distribution
Distribution in CSF and extradural space
Modes of drug elimination:
Direct excretion
Metabolism in organs of excretion: phase I & II mechanisms
Renal excretion and urinary pH
Non-organ breakdown of drugs
Pharmacokinetic analysis:
Concept of a pharmacokinetic compartment
Apparent volume of distribution
Clearance concepts applied to whole body and individual organs
Simple 1 and 2 compartmental models: concepts of wash-in and wash-out curves
Physiological models based on perfusion and partition coefficients
Effect of organ blood flow: Fick principle
Pharmacokinetic variation: influence of body size, sex, age, disease, pregnancy,
anaesthesia, trauma, surgery, smoking, alcohol and other drugs
Effects of acute organ failure (liver, kidney) on drug elimination
Pharmacodynamics: concentration-effect relationships: hysteresis
Pharmacogenetics: familial variation in drug response
Adverse reactions to drugs: hypersensitivity, allergy, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid

Systematic Pharmacology

Anaesthetic gases and vapours
Hypnotics, sedatives and intravenous anaesthetic agents
Simple analgesics
Opioids and other analgesics; and opioid antagonists
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Neuromuscular blocking agents (depolarising & non-depolarising), and
Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system: cholinergic and adrenergic agonists and
Drugs acting on the heart & cardiovascular system (including inotropes, vasodilators,
vasoconstrictors, antiarrhythmics, diuretics)
Drugs acting on the respiratory system (including respiratory stimulants &
Anti-diabetic agents
Corticosteroids and other hormone preparations
Antacids. Drugs influencing gastric secretion and motility
Antiemetic agents
Local anaesthetic agents
Plasma volume expanders
Vitamin K, B12 and thiamine


Candidates should have a good understanding of the principles of physics and clinical measurement with an emphasis on the function of monitoring equipment safety and measurement techniques.


Mathematical concepts: relationships and graphs
Concepts only of exponential functions and logarithms: wash-in, wash-out and tear away
Basic measurement concepts: linearity, drift, hysteresis, signal: noise ratio, static and
dynamic response
SI units: fundamental and derived units
Other systems of units where relevant to anaesthesia (e.g. mmHg, bar, atmospheres)
Simple mechanics: mass, force, work and power
Heat: freezing point, melting point, latent heat
Conduction, convection, radiation
Mechanical equivalent of heat: laws of thermodynamics
Measurement of temperature and humidity
Colligative properties: osmometry
Physics of gases and vapours
Absolute and relative pressure
The gas laws; triple point; critical temperature and pressure
Density and viscosity of gases

Laminar and turbulent flow; Poiseuille's equation, the Bernoulli principle
Vapour pressure: saturated vapour pressure
Measurement of volume and flow in gases and liquids
The pneumotachograph and other respirometers
Principles of surface tension
Basic concepts of electricity and magnetism
Capacitance, inductance and impedance
Amplifiers: band width, filters
Amplification of biological potentials: ECG, EMG, EEG
Sources of electrical interference
Processing, storage and display of physiological measurements
Bridge circuits
Basic principles and safety of lasers
Basic principles of ultrasound and the Doppler effect
Principles of cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators
Electrical hazards: causes and prevention
Electrocution, fires and explosions
Diathermy and its safe use
Principles of pressure transducers
Resonance and damping, frequency response

Measurement and units of pressure
Direct and indirect methods of blood pressure measurement
Principles of pulmonary artery and wedge pressure measurement
Cardiac output: Fick principle, thermodilution

Measurement of gas and vapour concentrations, (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,and volatile anaesthetic agents) using infra-red, paramagnetic, fuel cell, oxygen
electrode and mass spectrometry methods
Measurement of pH, pCO2 , pO2
Measurement CO2 production/ oxygen consumption/ respiratory quotient
Simple tests of pulmonary function e.g. peak flow measurement, spirometry
Pulse oximetry
Measurement of neuromuscular blockade
Measurement of pain


Trainees will be required to demonstrate understanding of basic statistical concepts, but will not be expected to have practical experience of statistical methods. Emphasis will be placed on methods by which data may be summarised and presented, and on the selection of statistical measures for different data types. Candidates will be expected to understand the statistical background to measurement error and statistical uncertainty.


Data Collection.
Simple aspects of study design
Defining the outcome measures and the uncertainty of measuring them
The basic concept of meta-analysis and evidence based medicine

Descriptive statistics
Types of data and their representation
The normal distribution as an example of parametric distribution
Indices of central tendency and variability

Deductive and inferential statistics
Simple probability theory and the relation to confidence intervals
The null hypothesis
Choice of simple statistical tests for different data types
Type I and type II errors

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