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Final basic sciences short case 19

Created: 7/5/2010
1. Draw and describe the blood supply to the brain (only arterial).
- Where do the carotid arteries divide into external/ internal branches? How does the carotid supply reach the skull?
- Where do the vertebral arteries form the basilar artery? How does this supply reach the skull?
- Where do the meningeal arteries arise from?
- Name the common locations for cerebral aneurysms.
- Discuss the associations between cerebral aneurysms, connective tissue disease, hypertension, polycystic kidneys etc.
- Why does vasospasm occur? Is it good or bad? Why do we treat it? How do we treat it?

2. Describe the uses of magnesium.
- Describe the mechanism of action and side-effects of magnesium.
- What is the total amount of magnesium in the body of the average adult?

3. Describe the stress response to trauma/surgery.
- Define the stress response.
- Why does it happen?
- Describe the mechanisms involved in this response.
- Is it good or bad? Why do we try to ablate it? How do we do this, and what problems might arise?
- What are the effects of etomidate and regional anaesthesia on the stress response? Is there any evidence for improved outcome with epidurals?

4. Describe the different types of lasers and their uses.
- Which type of laser is used in ear, nose and throat surgery?
- What are the possible problems with use of this type of laser?
- What are the necessary safety measures for patients and for staff?

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