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Final basic sciences short case 38

Created: 5/7/2021
1. How many cranial nerves are there?
- Which cranial nerves are tested in brainstem death testing?
- Which cranial nerves are not tested, and why?
- What are the pre-conditions for testing for brainstem death?
- Describe how these tests are carried out.
- Discuss the donation of organs and appropriate patients.

2. Prone positioning and respiratory changes:
- Discuss V/Q matching, ventilation and blood flow.
- Discuss diaphragm excursion and the impact on respiration.
- Discuss acute respiratory distress syndrome, oxygenation, how you would quantify improved oxygenation (FiO2 vs pO2), lack of evidence for outcomes, problems with turning a patient prone

3. Discuss the design of clinical trials, primary and secondary outcomes, blinding and controls, protocols, recruitment, ethics.
- Discuss power studies and problems with trials that are too small and too large.
- Who is responsible for overseeing trials, and what institution is responsible for patient complications?

4. What are the indications for carrying out an ECG?
- What information can an ECG provide?
- What problems can arise when performing intraoperative ECG monitoring (including problems with contact, leads, etc)?
- Discuss hyperkalaemia and its management.

5. Draw a cross-section of the neck through C6.
6. Discuss the drugs that act on the uterus and their mechanisms of action.

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